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Codonopsis is a perennial herb with milk. The stem base has many tumor-like stem scars, the root is often hypertrophic and fusiform or spindle-shaped cylindrical, less branched or slightly branched below the middle, 15-30 cm long, 1-3 cm in diameter, grayish yellow on the surface, upper end The 5-10 cm part has fine and dense rings.
Stem winding about 1-2 meters long, 2-4 mm in diameter, with many branches, lateral branches 15-50 cm, branchlets 1-5 cm, with leaves, sterile or apex flowering, yellow-green or yellow-white, glabrous . The leaves are alternate on the main stem and side branches, and nearly opposite on the branchlets, the petiole is 0.5-2.5 cm long, with sparse and short bristles, the leaves are ovate or narrowly ovate, 1-6.5 cm long, 0.8-5 cm wide Centimeters, blunt or slightly pointed, base close to heart-shaped, wavy blunt serrations at the edge, leaves on branches gradually narrow, leaf base round or wedge-shaped, green above, gray-green below, sparsely or densely appressed on both sides Hispid or soft hairs, rarely glabrous.
Flowers solitary on branches, alternate or nearly opposite to petioles, stalked. Calyx adnate to middle of ovary, tube hemispherical, lobes broadly lanceolate or narrowly oblong, 1-2 cm long, 6-8 mm wide, apex obtuse or slightly pointed, wavy or nearly entire , in the middle of the bay, the tip is narrow; the corolla is superior, broadly campanulate, about 1.8-2.3 cm long, 1.8-2.5 cm in diameter, yellow-green, with obvious purple spots on the inner surface, shallowly lobed, lobes are regular triangle, apex, entire; filament base Slightly enlarged, about 5 mm long, anthers oblong, 5-6 mm long; stigmas with white bristles. The lower part of the capsule is hemispherical, and the upper part is short conical. Seeds numerous, ovate, wingless, small, brownish yellow, smooth and glabrous. The flowering and fruiting period is July-October.
The traditional Chinese medicine Codonopsis Codonopsis Codonopsis Codonopsis likes mild and cool climates, is hardy to cold, and its roots can survive the winter in the open field in the soil. Seedlings like humidity, shade, and are afraid of strong light. Lack of water after sowing is not easy to emerge, and lack of water after emergence can cause mass death. High temperatures can easily cause root rot. Large seedlings to adult plants like full sunlight. It is suitable for cultivation in sandy loam soil with deep soil layer, good drainage, loose soil and rich humus. Born in mountain forests and shrubs at an altitude of 1560-3100 meters.
Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. var. pilosula leaves are 1-6.5 cm long and 0.8-5 cm wide. Calyx lobes 1.4-1.8 cm long; corolla 2-2.3 cm long. Produced in southeastern Tibet, western Sichuan, northwestern Yunnan, eastern Gansu, southern Shaanxi, Ningxia, eastern Qinghai, Henan, Shanxi, Hebei, Inner Mongolia and Northeast China. There are also North Korea, Mongolia and the Far East of the Soviet Union. Born in mountain forests and shrubs at an altitude of 1560-3100 meters. There are a lot of cultivation in various parts of China. 
Codonopsispilosula (Franch.) Nannf. var.volubilis (Nannf.) L. T. Shen is different from the original variety in that the leaves are smaller, 1-4.5 cm long and 0.8-2.5 cm wide. Calyx lobes 1-1.2 cm long; corolla 1.8-2.0 cm long. The rest of the traits are almost exactly the same as the original variety. Produced in western Sichuan and Shanxi, China. Born in mountain forests and shrubs at an altitude of 1800-2900 meters. The model specimen was collected from Shanxi.
Codonopsispilosula (Franch.) Nannf. var.handeliana (Nannf.) L. T. Shen is different from the original variety in that the leaves of this variety are smaller, 1-3 cm long and 0.8-2.5 cm wide. Calyx lobes large, 1.5-2 cm long, almost as long as corolla. There are often shiny long bristles on the leaves. Produced in northwest Yunnan and southwest Sichuan, China. Born in mountain grass slopes and shrubs at an altitude of 2300-3600 meters. The type specimen was collected from Zhongdian, Yunnan.
Codonopsis pilosula (variety) Codonopsispilosula (Franch.) Nannf.var.modesta (Nannf.) L.T. is produced in northwest Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu and southern Shaanxi to central Shanxi. Born in mountainous forests, forest edges and shrubs at an altitude of 1500-3200 meters. The type specimen was collected from northern Sichuan. The main difference from the original variety is only that the whole of this variety is nearly smooth and glabrous; the calyx lobes are smaller, about 10 mm long, so this species must be reduced to a variety, especially when the leaves are young and often sparsely pilose and apical. ciliate, not only to account for the subtlety of the difference between the two, but also to indicate that the species was inappropriately published on the basis of the flowering shoots with wedge-shaped leaf bases on the upper part of the plant of this variety.
Codonopsis pilosula is produced in southeastern Tibet, western Sichuan, northwestern Yunnan, eastern Gansu, southern Shaanxi, Ningxia, eastern Qinghai, Henan, Shanxi, Hebei, Inner Mongolia and Northeast China. There are also North Korea, Mongolia and the Far East of the Soviet Union. There are a lot of cultivation in various parts of China.
Breeding and cultivation
Codonopsis pilosula is used for direct seeding, seedling cultivation and transplanting, but the former is better.
Seed treatment Soak the seeds in warm water at 40-45°C before sowing, stir, stir, and place the seeds until the water temperature drops to no longer hot. Soak for another 5 minutes. Then, put the seeds into a gauze bag, wash them with water several times, put them on the sand pile, and pour them with warm water at 15°C every 3-4 hours. After 5-6 days, the seeds can be sown when they crack. The seeds in the bag can also be washed with water at 40°C for a certain number of times, and kept moist. When the seeds germinate in 4-5 days, they can be sown.
The live broadcast method is sown between "Frost's Descent" and "Lidong", and the seeds do not need to be treated. Keep warm and prevent the sun, gradually remove the cover when the seedling height is -10 cm, and pay attention to weeding and loosening the soil in time, watering, and keeping the soil moist.