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Ginseng (Panax ginsengC. A. Mey, alias: round ginseng),
Umbelliferae Araliaceae Panax ginseng is a perennial herb. It grows in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests or deciduous broad-leaved forests dominated by Korean pine at an altitude of several hundred meters between 33 degrees and 48 degrees north latitude. The main root of ginseng is 30-60 cm high, cylindrical or spindle-shaped; the stem is erect, cylindrical, unbranched; the compound leaves are palmate, with 3-5 leaflets; there are small petioles, and the small leaves are oval or slightly obovate; Inflorescence single terminal leaf cluster, small pedicels about 0.5 cm long; berries oblate, bright red when ripe, with two semicircular seeds inside, flowering period May-June, fruit period June-September. It is produced in northeast China, North Korea, South Korea, Japan, and eastern Russia.
One is the root of Araliaceae ginseng.
One is the root of the Araliaceae American ginseng.
Classification of cultivation characteristics
Common ginseng is transplanted once and harvested in 6 years.
The side ginseng was transplanted twice. Harvest in 6-8 years.
Shizhu ginseng is mainly produced in Kuandian, Liaoning. Use direct sowing or seedling transplanting, and cultivate for about 15 years to harvest.
Classification of processing methods
·Sun-dried ginseng: dig out the fibrous roots together, remove the soil and dry in the sun.
·Red ginseng: Take garden ginseng and cut off the branches and fibrous roots, wash it clean, steam for 2-3 hours, until the root turns yellow and the skin is translucent, take it out and dry it or dry it in the sun. The main finished products are red ginseng, edge ginseng and so on.
·Sugar ginseng: wash fresh ginseng, soak in boiling water for 3-7 minutes, remove it, then soak it in cold water for about 10 minutes, take it out, dry it in the sun, and then smoke it with sulfur. Then use a special needle to pierce small holes along the parallel and vertical directions of the ginseng body, and soak in concentrated sugar juice (100 ml of water, 135 g of sugar) for 24 hours. Take it out and expose it to the sun for 1 day, then moisten it with a wet towel to soften it, pierce it for the second time, and soak it in thick sugar juice for 24 hours. After taking it out, wash off the floating sugar, and dry it in the sun or roast it. The main finished products are white ginseng (processed product of garden ginseng or Yishan ginseng), sugar ginseng (processed product of various fresh ginseng), etc.
·Green Ginseng: Soak fresh ginseng in boiling water for a while and then dry it.
·Skinned ginseng: The processing method is similar to that of sugar ginseng. Generally, the ginseng body is soaked in boiling water for 3 times, each time for 1-2 minutes. After the ginseng body is pierced, put it into the thinner sugar juice and soak it for 3 times, take it out and bake it on a low heat to separate the skin from the inside, then lightly pierce the skin with a bamboo knife to make it into spots.
·Jilin Ginseng (Changbai Mountain Ginseng)
·Korean ginseng (Korean ginseng, Biezhi ginseng)
· American ginseng
Real shots of ginseng (15) Ginseng mostly grows under the climate conditions with an average temperature of -23-5°C in January and 20-26°C in July. It has strong cold resistance and can withstand low temperatures of -40°C. The suitable temperature for growth is 15 -25°C. It generally grows in places where the annual accumulated temperature is 2000-3000°C, the frost-free period is 125-150 days, the snow cover is 20-44 cm, and the annual precipitation is 500-1000 mm. Ginseng likes cool and humid climate. Like oblique and diffuse light, avoid strong light and high temperature. The soil requirements are brown forest soil with good drainage, loose, fertile, and deep humus layer or ash brown forest soil in mountainous areas, and the pH value of the soil is 5.5-6.2.
Because ginseng contains more sugar, mucus and volatile oil, it is prone to deterioration such as damp, oily, moldy, discolored, and moth-eaten. There are several ways to store ginseng:
1. Conventional storage method: For dried ginseng, it can be sealed with a plastic bag to isolate the air, and stored in a cool place.
2. Hygroscopic agent drying method: Put an appropriate amount of desiccant, such as quicklime, charcoal, etc., at the bottom of the airtight cylinder, cylinder, and box, then wrap the ginseng in paper and put it in, and cover it tightly.
3. Low temperature preservation method: This is an ideal method. Ginseng should be dried in the sun before storage. The best exposure time is between 9 am and 4 pm, but ginseng should not be exposed to the sun for a long time, and ginseng used for medicinal purposes has reached a certain degree of drying. Generally, it is only necessary to turn ginseng in the sun for 1-2 hours in the afternoon. After it cools down, wrap it tightly with a plastic bag and put it in the freezer of the refrigerator, so it can be stored for a long time.